Recently we observe the rise of a pack of new operating systems, which are considered as competitors to traditional ones (which dates back to 30 and more years). Some of new ones are oriented for mobile devices, others are Web- and browser-centric. The latter, in part, assumes browser may replace traditional user interface with similar one (which uses desktop, icons, etc) though based on hypertext. Of course, appearance of new operating systems is not accidental. There are a number of factors, which force the whole industry thinks in this direction:
- possibility (or even necessity) of lightweight solutions vs. heavyweight solutions of traditional operating systems and applications;
- deprecated legacy of old graphical interface vs. hypertext interface;
- growing significance of hypertext itself.
But can browser-centric operating system replace traditional one completely? Or we observe the rise of alternative lightweight systems, which will exist in parallel with traditional heavyweight ones? Will interface change in oncoming years? Is file deprecated as information storage unit? These and other problems are considered below.
There are several factors which cause a demand for lightweight solutions:
1. Lightweight environment. Sometimes we really need only standard tools for viewing and creating quite simple content.
2. Lightweight functions or SOA (service-oriented architecture) in action. Sometimes we use only several functions from thousands. It is good to have a choice between lightweight functions (or remote/local services) and heavyweight applications.
3. Transfer of heavyweight functions to remote servers or cloud.
4. It is impossible to create heavyweight solutions for all possible use cases.
Of course, the choice between lightweight and heavyweight functions appeared not today and even not yesterday. This choice closely linked with the choice between loose and tight coupling, with the nuance of choosing between local and remote components (added by Web), and between explicit and implicit location of processing (by clouds).
The choice between lightweight or heavyweight solution is not simple and depends on circumstances. Usually any product is a combination of both solutions. In real world, tight coupling is preferred when efficiency achieved by configuring dependencies between components in advance; or composition of components is quite difficult. Thus, any car should be assembled before sold to a driver. Loose coupling is preferred when we need flexibility and replaceability of components. Thus, some details of car can be replaced, because otherwise we would replace the whole car because of a small failure.
Such choice is not simple in computer environment too. Namely therefore thin clients cannot replace thick ones completely, Internet applications cannot replace OS-specific ones, cloud computing cannot replace local one. They are alternatives, which usually combined as necessary. And any future operating system has to combine both lightweight and heavyweight approaches.
Graphical interface does not influence evolution of operating systems anymore. Recent touch sensing revolution enhanced the way of interacting with interface but not the very interface. However, many companies and developers still try to improve interface, which is due to following factors:
5. Convergence of graphical interfaces. Almost any platform (including mobile ones) is uniform now: desktops, icons, windows, etc.
6. Growing significance of hypertext interface. The most of information is represented today with hypertext, therefore its interface sometimes is more important than one of local environment.
7. Innate problems of graphical interface are consequences of Goedel's incompleteness theorems. That is, a user deals either with understandable interface with few functions, or with more sophisticated interface (with greater number of functions) but which requires significant learning curve.
8. Lesser flexibility of graphical interface, comparing with command-line interface (which allows reuse of command and parameters, e.g. by shell scripting).
9. Forced (for a user) awareness about low-level aspects of operating system (like files, services, applications, etc).
Tasks of interface are not only representing information in human-readable form but also order and filter this information. Of course, complete ordering of information is impossible (see Goedel's incompleteness theorems). Therefore, we have either ordered hierarchies in GUI (when we cannot get access to all information, because it is hidden in different branches of hierarchy), or unordered interface of command line (when all information is accessible from the top level but you read a manual more often). Similar situation with Web, where ordered portals confront search engines. Another example of this duality is news sites, which try either order number of news (but then some will be hidden), or show all (but then a user may get lost in them).
Can this duality be resolved with design (which sometimes considered as the solution)? Yes, but only partially, because design is only yet another (visual) way of information ordering (and which influenced by the same incompleteness theorems). Can this duality be resolved with any kind simple interface? Yes, but it is possible only by dropping some functions (and again see the theorems).
Can this situation be resolved with video and interactive lessons? It is true that some things may be easily explained with video. However, simple explanation fits only simple things. The more complex information, the more complex explanation is required. Video may convey more information, but less meaning (that is, ordered information), comparing with text. Video is more resource consuming as for both creating and for usage too. And not only for computer but for a user too: the same explanation (especially for abstract conceptions) may be quicker to read than to see at video. Actually, these facts were known centuries ago. Thus, a teacher gives "video" (in person) lessons in real time, but these lessons cover only basics, whereas full understanding is available only through self-education with books.
Can the problem be resolved by reading a manual? Yes, but here we have a sort of dilemma. The more complex interface is, the more complex description of it is, the more entities are introduced. Finally, the tails start to wag the dog: instead of mere using, interface dictates how we should use it. The problem is aggravated by separation of interface and documentation, which often written by different people at all. Therefore reading manuals is the adequate solution only when manuals are adequate too (which is not always the case).
However, if looking deeply, it is clear that learning interface may become even more difficult because of the very conceptions and principles of interface. Have you tried to look for some option, when you are forced to browse through a list of all (50+) options? Have you tried to look for some option in graphical interface, when it is available only in specific and the only way (like menu A -> dialog B -> button 1 -> checkbox 2), which should be remembered for each option? Have you tried to remember 30-50 keyboard shortcuts for each application you use? Have you tried to use some icon-abound application by remembering all icons?
You may see that even "read the manual" principle is limited. And the cause of interface problems is rather in understanding it interface as a layer between applications and humans. Though, in fact, interface is representation of semantics in human-readable form. That is, it is a sort of human-friendly semantics (like natural language) vs. computer-friendly semantics of data and formats.
Influence of hypertext is difficult to overestimate, but and is easy to do too. Hypertext long ago ceased to be hypertext (that is, text linked with other information sources with hyperreferences). Dynamic aspect, real-time updates, video transformed hypertext into a mix of design and programming elements. That is, it evolved to be more or less similar to standard graphical interface. This is not bad by itself, but unfortunately this also meant hypertext is roamed from text features and conveying semantics. In general, the peak of hypertext evolution is not reached yet, because of a number of factors:
10. Hypertext (which used for describing information) did not transform into hyperinformation (which is information itself).
11. Hypertext allows transparent integrating local and remote information sources, which, in own turn, facilitates development of lightweight solutions.
12. Necessity of broad usage of semantics. Semantic Web started this trend, however, it is restricted only with Web, though should include operating systems too.
13. Necessity of human-friendly semantics (which may be possible thanks to simplified Semantic Web, which may facilitate creation and usage of understandable semantics).
14. Necessity of content ordering/filtering/aggregating (which may be applied not only with search engines, but with semantics itself).
15. Browsing is a part of semantics. Really, each referring changes context of information environment. And each modifying of context may change a scope of references (by filtering them).
Everything is semantics, if it has some meaning for a human being. Not only interface, but browsing itself, any data, any application, etc. Today, applications expresses meaning in data and formats, but usually it is revealed only partially to a user (through graphical interface) because it is considered as too complex or not secure to disclose it. However, there are a lot of user data which by definition are not complex and secure for a user oneself (because often they were created by him or her). In result, we have the situation, when, meaning inside computer is detached from meaning inside humans. Of course, such detachment is evident problem, which is after fixed by other means.
For example, realize some application starts and shows a dialog, which proposes to install update and asks whether you want to update the application or not. Of course, such attention to a user is appropriate and necessary, however, there are a lot of questions, which ignored by conception of "detached meaning", in general, and "simple interface", in particular:
- what is included into an update and why each change required?
- what size an update has and where it is downloaded (is there any space on disk)?
- is there any options (do not download updates, download only updates on security, etc)?
- is there any video lesson, which will help to configure an update more finely?
Of course, such advanced management of update can be implemented with already existing tools and environments. However, each advanced management requires more resources and time of developers, which, in own turn, affects a user, because less resources and time will be spent on the very updates, etc. Can this vicious circle be broken? Yes, but for that we need new principles of interface, operating systems, and applications.
All the questions about the update, which were asked above, in fact, are semantics of the update. Therefore we need to attribute meaning to applications and their parts, data, interface, text, video, files and their parts, as well as real things and concepts in more advanced way. Today, we already have one way of attributing meaning: it is hypertext. But it can be enhanced as follows: (1) include semantics (identification and associating with relations), (2) allow fragmented and detached semantic wrappers for any piece of information, which in minimal form could consists from one identifier. In result, we would have not hypertext but rather hyperinformation, because not only text but any information (applications, data, any file, etc) can be used by it. You may imagine the whole operating system (or rather semantic ecosystem) as one semantic canvas, where any element (like a fragment of video or an interface control) may be easily linked with each other.
What technology should be used for hyperinformation? Traditional Web is too oriented for graphical interface. Semantic Web is too oriented for meaning in a form of data and formats. Both technologies are inappropriate here, because it is impossible to create personal application for any personal use case of any user, similarly it is impossible to create personal data and formats for any case. Namely therefore we need the technology which would allow creating personal meaning, that is, simplified Semantic Web.
Ideas behind simplified Semantic Web are simple: (1) human-friendly identification as a balance between precise computer identification (e.g. by hyperreferences) and ambiguous natural language identification, (2) human-friendly representation of semantic relation through legacy of hypertext, (3) restricted set of semantic relations to be human-friendly too, (4) semantic wrappers for any data or code. Because of these ideas we come to understanding that namely browser can play the key role in future operating systems.
As base tool for surfing traditional Web, browser can easily migrate for hyperinformation. In own turn, it can be easily adapted for lightweight solutions and semantics. It does not mean it should operate with any format or be able to represent any graph of Semantic Web. However, browser should work with:
- "Web of Things" (or more correctly "Web of Things and Conceptions"), that is, allow navigation between things, conceptions, and information resources on them;
- legacy data and applications;
- Big Data.
For that future browser should incorporate following features:
1. To be semantic aware.
Browser should be able to refer to anything (unlike hypertext which can refer only to information resources). The only alternative (which can refer to anything) now is natural language, which, unfortunately, is ambiguous (mostly because it uses not unique identifiers). For example, "Springfield" as a city, can be found in different states of USA. When you are using map application, then software propose to solve this ambiguity manually. However, search engine cannot resolve it fully, because sometimes it is not clear from text and context which exact Springfield is mentioned. The only solution: to have a unique identifier, which can be explicitly used. For example, "Springfield, IL".
Realize, you have a document with description of economy of Springfield, IL. Today, the trendiest way to facilitate access to it is key words (or tags), because, evidently, the traditional search by text is considered as not quite fruitful. We can guess as such a set of tags could look like "Springfield, Illinois, USA, economy, business, trade, employment". Shortcoming of them are: (a) they are only associations, which you can recall (though, apparently, a set of associations can be never complete and is subjective by itself), (b) some tags are a part of other tags, which makes them redundant, (c) meaning of the document is blurred, basing on these tags: is it "economy"? is it "type of economy?"? is it "trade in USA and Illinois?", etc.
The alternative for key words is only more precise identification as a part of simplified Semantic Web. In our example, if you really want to make access to the document faster, you should use the aggregated and precise identification of the document. That is, such identification should (a) convey concise meaning of the document, (b) use as much precise identifiers as possible (not text). Of course, you may object to that, because usually information has several meanings. However, this the case for all things in Universe, cities has many meanings too, however they should be identified precisely. Similarly, any information should be precisely identified (and not by a title, which often tended to be attractive and full of metaphors), whereas all possible associations (that is, additional meaning) should be calculable.
In our case, the document should have the identifier, which consists of two precise identifiers: "Springfield, IL" which refers to the city, and "economy" (which is the precise identifier, though has vague area of definition what is included into this term), linked between each other (which means this document namely about "economy OF Springfield, IL", not about "Springfield, IL and economy" or "economy document written in Springfield, IL", etc). The role of browser is to be able to use precise identifiers (to both computer entities and real things and conceptions) and relations between them.
That is, when you surfed to such document, you can surf to either other information resources or real thing or conceptions (and not only). Why do we need that? In fact, traditional surfing only helps to research random links to documents, which describes concerned entity, and related things and conceptions. The situation can be improved with an article in an encyclopedia. However, neither encyclopedia can cover all things in the world, because a number of such things and conceptions much greater than ability of encyclopedia creators. Namely therefore, we surfing through real things and conceptions are needed. It would help to understand the role of concerned thing, its associations with other things, and surf between them.
2. To work with legacy data and applications.
Today, browsers are not used instead of file managers, mostly because hypertext support for files is resource and time consuming. For example, for directory you need to create a hypertext, which describes it, and then synchronize each time when you create/move/delete some files. To semantize files and directories, we can wrap them with meaning. A semantic wrapper should identify content, which would allow including legacy data (files and their parts, applications and their functions and controls) in semantic ecosystem. Semantic wrapping is the key principle of hyperinformation, which consider any information as a separate entity available for referring.
This opens new perspectives, sometimes in unexpected areas. Today, a lot of information is duplicated across the Internet. Unfortunately, there are no ways for machine to define if information is duplicate or not (unless file identifiers coincide). Semantic wrapping may change that. Unlike arbitrary file identifiers (for example, the document about Springfield, IL may be named as "Spr.doc" or "Sprinfield_IL.doc", etc) semantic identifiers are more unequivocal. Therefore, this would make possible to download only a wrapper from untrusted source, and after this to download the information (which is referred by this wrapper) from trusted source. We can do the same today, but in explicit way, whereas semantic wrapper saves could save our time. For example, you read about some book in blog, click on a reference to semantic wrapper, which automatically redirects you to e-book download from your favorite shop (or proposing several sources).
3. To interact with semantics.
Semantics based on references to things and conceptions, whereas the role of interface is interaction with such references. Similarly, natural language is interaction with ambiguous word-references to everything, command-line interface is one with (mostly) unique references to computer resources, graphical interface is one with visual references (which, unfortunately, is hardly formalized in symbols) to computer resources, at last, interface of hypertext is one with unique references to information resources. Evidently, we need both references to computer resources and information resources and real things and conceptions. Therefore, the question is can we combine advantages of all these interfaces?
In fact, hypertext already combines some features of graphical interface and natural language. Any hyperreference is covered with ambiguous reference of natural language and uses unique reference to information resource. Conception of hyperinformation, simplified Semantic Web, and semantic ecosystem add new tints. Hyperinformation can uniquely refer to things, conceptions, and computer resources. But changes in interface are needed to extend usage of hypertext beyond "point-and-click" metaphor.
Phrase that "interface is semantics" now sounds not so abstract: really, instead of the graph of web sites, interaction with semantics is one with the graph of everything (things, conceptions, sites, data, functions, etc). And if "point-and-click" is enough for the graph of sites, the graph of everything requires quite different approach. It is evident by the fact of success of search engines. Really, why are they needed? Because, mere "point-and-click" is not appropriate for navigating through graph of everything, and in the case of search engines we use natural language for navigating.
The next step is using hyperinformation for navigating the graph. Each navigating operation is a comparison of a graph of a query with the graph of everything, or if put simply, it is a comparison of a question with available answers. Such navigating is very similar to command-line interface, except of (1) not commands are used but hyperinformation (that is, natural language with unique identifiers behind it), (2) result is hyperinformation too (that is, references to things, conceptions, data, UI controls, functions, etc). By this way, as you may note, all types of interfaces are merged into one, because hyperinformation may wrap elements of all types of interface. In the result, even graphical interface may change (though semantic interface may operate in parallel with it). For example, hyperinformation allows atomic UI operations, which would involve any separate UI control, which means any UI control may be reused in navigation by the graph of everything.
If talking about the example with the update dialog from above, semantic interface may change it in following ways:
- the dialog may refer to semantic wrapper of an update, which can be downloaded to your computer;
- an update may refer to own components;
- an update may refer an application options or even UI controls;
- a precise reference to an update can help to retrieve references to it;
- an update itself is a graph of hyperinformation, which may be queried by semantic interface.
That is, for example, to turn off updates you may query an update with "Turn off" string (which can become an identifier as soon as it matches an update graph), which may response with UI control, which allows turning off downloads.
4. To tame Big Data (micro and macro data management).
The problem of big data is not created by computer age, in fact, it is known for any living creature: thinking is processing of big data (representation of billions atoms in a receptor) and aggregating it into compact inner representation (a memory or a word, which refers to something). And if you want to live with any big data, the answer is always aggregation. Aggregate, if data is still big, aggregate aggregations, repeat as many times as needed until the result is appropriate.
Aggregation is crucial for not only really big data but also for local data: whereas Big Data is hard to be swallowed by computers, local big data is usually the problem for users, which are lost even in own personal data, and cannot find necessary information. Can the problem of locally big data be resolved by search? Not quite, because search uses own algorithm of aggregation. Whereas, a user needs own ordering, which can be supported by self-aggregation and interface.
Really, why any information should be categorized each time it is copied to a new computer? Realize, you download a document about Springfield, then save it to disk in "Documents/Geography/USA" folder. It seems you will find this document easily in future. It is true, but only until the moment you will have thousands documents in this folder. That is, you need to create new folders with subdivision by states or by cities, but then you can have problems with folders themselves (if their quantity will be big enough). What's worse, in some cases you may not have time for categorizing a new information, and then chances to find "Downloads/2011/Springfld_2.doc" are even less.
Now realize, that the document is pre-categorized (which should be supported by semantic ecosystem) or pre-aggregated (which should be done by the document creators) before it reaches your computer. The aggregation of the document can be expressed in reference to "Springfield, IL". Categorization is derivable of the aggregation, that is, the topic has derivable relations to geography, Earth, North America, USA, Illinois, Springfield itself, etc. Now, if you have predefined folder for geography or USA, the document will be placed here. But are folders needed at all? In fact, folder is constant categorizing of information, but if we can place information automatically, then only identification of information matters, whereas categorization is always derivable.
But aggregation should be supported by interface. This is where context come into play. What is the context? You can consider it as following versions of folder conception:
- dynamic folder: context should cover all information which matches the given topic (however because of possible performance issues with fully dynamic contexts, number of contexts can be restricted, as it done with modern desktops);
- hyperinformation folder: context should cover not only files and subfolders, but any information wrapped with semantics (part of file, application, function, interface control, web site, web page, etc);
- symbiotic folder: changing context may help to reach information, upon reaching information, in own turn, context may change (to find a document about Springfield, IL you go to the context of Illinois, but upon reaching it, the context can be changed to one of Springfield, IL);
- filtering folder: because information may belong to multiple contexts, context can be finely tuned to reach information you need;
- associative folder: context may store information shared between contexts (for example, a document about Springfield, IL goes to USA context, Illinois one, Springfield one, trade one, etc);
- semantic folder: context allows only information, which relates to meaning of it (that is, if you have context of USA, you cannot put a file on France to it).
So, what answers can we give to answers from the beginning of this article? Can browser-centric operating system replace traditional one completely? Of course not, because operating system is interface between hardware and software, whereas browser is a part of interface between software and users. On the other hand, browser may surpass traditional or low-level user interface (files, graphical interface, etc) with semantic user interface, which may change the principles of interacting humans with computers.
Do we observe the rise of alternative lightweight operating systems, which will exist in parallel with traditional heavyweight operating systems? Possibly. Lightweightness may be forced, if we talk about devices, which are oriented for media content or Web surfing. However, in general, any lightweight solution tends to take heavyweight features in long run. The same effect we can observe in many successful applications, which become successful thanks to lightweightness, but which became heavyweight monsters after more and more features requested.
Will interface change in oncoming years? Definitely yes, and changes should concern rather not new visual features, but rather combination of visual and semantic ones, which would allow dramatically improve learnability of interface.
Is file deprecated as information storage unit? Yes and no. Yes, it is deprecated as low-level feature of operating systems, which should be represented as high-level entity for users. But no, it is not deprecated as atomic unit of information (there is no reason to replace one atomic unit by another).
Then which paradigm shift we are talking about? We are talking about new semantic level of operating system architecture, which is placed over traditional user level. Whereas the role of browser as "run anywhere" tool is to navigate through semantic level and complement traditional user interface. That is, not browser vs. operating system, but browser over operating system. Apparently, it would not be browser as we used to see it: surfing the Web would be only one of many other functions like identifying of things and conceptions, working with semantics in general and context in part, efficient management of local information, etc, etc.